7.0 The Land Phase

7.1 THE LAND PHASE SEQUENCE: At the beginning of this phase France announces when in the following sequence he will be moving. The other major powers move in this order: Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain.

7.1.1 MINOR FREE STATE SEQUENCE: All land forces of minor free states move in the sequence of their controlling major power.
7.1.2 COMBINED MOVE SEQUENCE: In order for a major power to move in the sequence of another major power, those major powers must be allies and must have announced combined movement during the Political Phase. Combined movement is conducted in the sequence of the ally who would have moved last in the phase.
7.1.3 LAND PHASE STEPS: Each major power sequence of the Land Phase is divided into Depot Creation/Removal, Land Movement, Supply, Land Combat and Guerrilla Steps. Each player completes all these steps during his major power sequence before the next player commences his major power sequence. The player taking his sequence and his counters are described as "phasing" during that time and all other players and their counters are called "nonphasing". After all major powers have completed their sequences, the Conquest Step is simultaneously resolved.

7.2 THE DEPOT CREATION/REMOVAL STEP: Major powers may remove any of their depots, destroying any garrisons on a removed depot unless there is an unbesieged friendly controlled or vacant city in that same area to which they can be transferred. Major powers may then purchase and place new depots, up to counter mix limits on the map at any one time, at the cost of one money point each. The same depots may be removed, then placed, etc. any number of times during the course of a game as long as one money point is paid every time one is placed and the countermix limits are not exceeded --the same depot counter may be removed and then placed elsewhere (at a one money point cost) during the same Depot Creation/Removal Step. Free state forces use the depots of their controlling major power. Depots may not be placed in areas containing unbesieged enemy corps, guerillas, freikorps or cossacks (unless an unbesieged corps of the major power placing the depot is also in that area) or in an area which already contains a depot (there is a limit of one depot per area EXCEPTION: see 7.2.2). Depots may be placed only in the following areas:

7.2.1 DEPOT IN A FRIENDLY CITY AREA: A new depot may be placed in an area containing a friendly controlled unbesieged city, in that major power's territory.

7.2.2 *DEPOT INSIDE A FRIENDLY PORT OR IN A PORT AREA: Even if not itself a supply source or part of an overland supply chain, a new depot may be placed in an area containing an unblockaded friendly controlled port, provided there exists a friendly unblockaded sea supply source (see 7.4.3) to the port. If such a port is besieged, then the depot is placed in the port city itself. This is the only case where the depot is considered to be in a city rather than in the surrounding area. Another, enemy depot could also be placed in the port city's area while a depot is also in the port city itself. This is the only case where two depots may be located in the same area (actually, one in the city and one in the area).

7.2.3 DEPOTS IN SUPPLY CHAINS: A new depot may be placed within two unblocked areas of an already existing (before this Turn) depot that is a supply source or which is part of a valid supply chain. SUPPLY SOURCE DEFINITION: A "supply source" is any unbesieged controlled city area in a major power's home nation or controlled minor country that is unoccuppied by enemy forces and that contains a depot. SUPPLY CHAIN DEFINITION: A "supply chain" is a series of one major power's depots that are placed no more than two areas apart and lead back to a supply source of that major power. A "valid" supply chain is one where the intervening areas between any of a supply chain's depots are not blocked by the presence of unbesieged enemy corps, garrisons, guerillas, cossacks and/or freikorps (EXCEPTION: these enemy forces do not block an area if that area also contains an unbesieged friendly corps or garrison). A valid supply chain may only be traced across sea areas via sea supply (see 7.4.3). A valid supply chain may be traced across sea crossing arrows unless the surrounding sea area contains an enemy fleet(s). Any portion of a supply chain that is not valid cannot be used for regular supply (see 7.4.2), although the invalid depots do not have to be removed. SUPPLY CHAIN RESTRICTIONS:
New depots as part of a supply chain may not be placed in a minor neutral unless the major power is at war with the neutral and may only be placed in the territory of another major power if given access permission by, at war with, or having imposed victory condition C.5 (see 4.5.2) on that major power. For a major power to place a new depot outside of its own territory, an unbesieged corps of that major power must be in that area. Depots from different major powers, even if allied, may not combine to form one supply chain (including sea supply or invasion supply).

7.2.4 *DEPOTS ON FLEETS: Depots may be placed on fleets, for the provision of invasion supply (see 7.4.4).

7.3 THE LAND MOVEMENT STEP: Major powers may move any or all of their corps, cossacks, freikorps or guerillas during their sequence. Free state corps are moved at the same time by the controlling major power and are not limited to movement within their minor free state. Movement may be restricted through other major powers' territory (see 10.3). Movement allowances may not be transferred from unit to unit nor may they be accumulated from Turn to Turn.

7.3.1 GENERAL LAND MOVEMENT RULES: Each land counter has a "movement allowance" consisting of a number of movement points" that can be expended to enter new areas on the map. MOVEMENT ALLOWANCES: With corps bearing a cavalry symbol (including Austrian light infantry), Austrian and Prussian freikorps and Russian cossacks the movement allowance is "5". For French corps (including French artillery) and French controlled minor free state corps having an infantry symbol and having their "3" movement allowance number in parenthesis the allowance is "4". All other corps have an allowance of "3". Spanish guerillas have a movement allowance of one area (regardless of terrain). FORCE MARCHING: Corps may increase their movement allowance by one movement point by "force marching". Cossacks, freikorps and guerillas  may not force march. (Errata:) Corps may increase their movement allowance by one movement point by "force marching." Cossacks, freikorps, guerillas, cavalry corps and disembarking corps may not be force marched. LAND MOVEMIENT COSTS: Each map area generally expends one movement point from a counter's movement allowance to enter, although this varies in some areas, as follows: Marsh or Mountain: Areas containing a marsh or a mountain cost 2 movement points to enter. Crossing Rivers: It costs an extra movement point to enter an area across a river, if that area contains an unbesieged enemy corps. There is no extra cost to move across a river if there is no unbesieged enemy corps counter(s) in the area. Sea Crossing Arrow Movement: It always costs an extra movement point to use a crossing arrow. Corps, freikorps and/or cossacks may not use a crossing arrow if an enemy fleet occupies the surrounding sea area. Cumulative Costs: These costs are all cumulative. For example, movement across a river into a mountain area containing an enemy corps costs one movement point to cross the river, plus two more movement points since it is a mountain area, for a total of three movement points of the counter's movement allowance expended. FORAGING WHILE MOVING: Although the rules are covered in the Supply Step, foraging (see 7.4.1) is performed while corps are being moved.

7.3.2 LAND MOVEMENT PROCEDURES: Each counter is moved individually. A corps must cease movement when it consumes its movement allowance or when it enters an area containing an unbesleged enemy corps (not if the area contains only cossacks, freikorps, guerillas and/or garrisons). Cossacks and/or freikorps are not required to cease movement when they enter an area containing enemy forces. No counter may be moved into an area that would cost more movement points than the counter has remaining for use. Movement may be ended earlier --there is no requirement to move any counter nor for any counter to expend its full movement allowance.

7.3.3 MOVING INTO CITIES --DETACHING/ABSORBING FACTORS --GARRISONS: During a major power's Land Movement Step, any non-artillery, non-feudal or non-insurrection corps may detach factors as garrisons at, or absorb army factors from, depots and/or unbesieged friendly or vacant cities by reducing or increasing its strength, if the capacity is there. There is no movement point cost for doing this. DETACHING/ABSORBING FACTORS RESTRICTIONS: Regular infantry and/or militia factors may not be detached or absorbed in an area containing enemy corps outside a city. Minor free state forces may only detach and absorb their infantry factors to and from cities and/or depots within their own country. Detachments cannot empty a corps. All corps must always contain at least one army factor to maintain the corps counter on the map --corps counters may be removed only due to 5.2.3/5.2.4, 7.3.5, 7.4.1 or 7.5.5 and at those times. CONVERTING ARMY FACTORS: Regular cavalry and guard factors detached to serve as garrisons must be converted to regular infantry factors for the remainder of the game; artillery factors may not be detached. GARRISON FACTORS: Garrison factors can be regular infantry and/or militia factors, represented by the placement of garrison/strength counters of the appropriate strength and type on the city or depot concerned. Each major power must use counters of its own color (see 1.2) for garrison purposes outside the major power's borders. The gray garrison/strength counters must be used for minor free states inside their own borders and may be also be used inside a major power's home nation territory to represent that major power's garrisons if insufficient counters of the appropriate color are available. This is why some small grey counters are militia. Cossack, freikorps and guerilla factors (guerillas may not garrison depots) mav also be used to form all or part of a city or depot garrison. Corps may form all or part of a city garrison without detaching army factors, so that any types of army factors in such corps could also be a garrison. CITY GARRISON CAPACITIES: A city's maximum garrison capacity is 5 times its supply value (e.g., a city with a supply value of "4" --it has four spires on its map picture --may contain up to 20 army factors). A city may also hold any number of leaders (NOTE: leaders may only be moved into a city with corps counters, although they may remain there --must remain there if the city is besieged --after the corps counters are eliminated). DEPOT GARRISON CAPACITY: A depot's maximum garrison capacity is 10 army factors. All army factors/corps used to garrison a depot must be of the same major power as the depot. Controlled minor free state factors may be used to garrison any of its major power's depots only within the minor free state's borders. A depot in a besieged port city (see 7.2.2) does not add any garrison capacity to the city-the port city/depot combination has the same capacity as just the city alone.

7.3.4 MOVEMENT FROM CITIES: If a phasing major power has corps, cossacks, freikorps and/or guerillas inside a city which is not being besieged, they may be moved directly out of that city into the area surrounding the city and/or continue normal movement into adjacent areas (if permissable). Moving from a city into its area (or vice-versa) expends no movement points.

7.3.5 *LANDING FROMS "DISEMBARKING": Corps being transported on fleets at sea (see 6.2.5) must be "disembarked" into any adjacent land area during their Land Movement Step or be eliminated. Corps being transported on fleets that moved into a port must disembark in the port's area. When disembarking from fleets located in a blockade box, corps must land in the area containing that blockade box's port. Disembarking exhausts a corps' entire movement allowance for all purposes, and counts the same as having crossed a river for purposes of any combat in that area during the disembarking player's sequence (see If an area contains a friendly port that is besieged, counters may be considered to be disembarked directly into the port (if there is room) or into the port's area, as the controlling player desires. (Errata:) If an area contains a friendly port that is besieged, counters may be considered to be disembarked directly into the port (if there is room) or into the port's area, as the controlling player desires.

If during movement a corps, cossack, freikorps or guerilla' moves into an area containing an ungarrisoned enemy depot, it may elect to destroy the depot. If it does destroy the depot and ends its movement in that area, then having destroyed the depot counts as having successfully foraged for supply (with no loss) for that one corps counter. An alternative to destroying a depot is to convert (remove the enemy depot and replace it with one of the entering power's depots-there is no money cost for this conversion) it to a friendly depot if that would make it a supply source or an extension of a friendly valid supply chain (see 7.2.3). GARRISONED DEPOT AREA: If an enemy depot is garrisoned, the player controlling the garrison factors has the option of immediately destroying the depot before the moving force chooses whether to leave the area (if per-missable) or to stay and fight. If the garrison does not elect to destroy the depot and the phasing force chooses to stop its movement and fight, the depot may be captured after land combat (see and destroyed or converted (but not used for supply this major power's sequence --also see If the garrison destroys the depot, the garrison surrenders or all or part (if city cannot hold all --the part not moved to the city will surrender) can be moved to an unbesieged friendly controlled or vacant city in that same area, at the owning player's option.

If during movement a corps moves into an area containing enemy corps not in a city, the corps must cease movement and declare an attack. If enemy corps and/or garrison factors are in a city the phasing corps may continue movement or stop movement and besiege (see 7.5.4) or not, as the owning player desires. If he decides to besiege the enemy corps and forages for supply, the foraging die roll is not reduced due to unconsumed movement points (see 7.3.2). If any friendly forces in an area besiege enemy forces then all friendly forces in that area (except depot garrisons) must besiege the enemy forces. ENEMY COSSACK, FREIKORPS OR DEPOT GARRISON IN AREA: If a corps ends its movement in an area containing an only enemy cossacks, freikorps and/or depot garrison factors it must declare an attack. A corps may move through such an area without stopping or declaring an attack.

7.3.8 *DECLARATION OF COMBAT AND COMBINED MOVEMENT: To avoid problems when moving into combat the following step sequence must be followed whenever moving into an area containing two or more forces or when using combined movement (see 4.9). STEP ONE: All allies who are using combined movement, although moving in the same major power sequence, must decide in which order they will move within this sequence. If agreement cannot be reached, let competitive die rolls decide. STEP TWO: The phasing major power (the first ally in the case of combined movement) moves all his forces normally and must declare an attack against all field forces (corps that have not moved into cities or cossacks, freikorps and/or depot garrisons in the last area entered) with which he is at war, in each area that also contains his field forces. STEP THREE: Major powers who have field forces in an area in which a combat has been declared against an ally, may now declare war (if not already at war and if not restricted --see 4.2.2) on the attacker, losing the appropriate political points (see --record on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card) per separate declaration of war. No allies can be called for these declarations of war, These major powers are now classed as the "defenders" and fight the combat as one force. STEP FOUR: All major powers not at war with the attacker (except the attacker and his allies at war with the defender and factors in cities or on depots) must now leave the area, moving to any adjacent area that, if possible, is closer or at least as close to their source of supply as the area they leave. STEP FIVE: Now the second combined movement ally (if there is one) follows the procedures outlined in Steps 2-4 but may not enter an area containing forces of the first ally unless it is an area where no attack has been declared or the second ally is at war with all the defending major powers in that area. This ally now becomes an attacker (joining the first ally in the attack). STEP SIX: Repeat Step 5 until all the combined movement allies have moved. Now every ally of the phasing major power(s) who is in an area where an attack has been declared and is at war with all the defending major powers may stay and participate as an attacker. Otherwise they must leave the area, moving to an adjacent area closer to their souces of supply. STEP SEVEN: This will now leave just two forces in every area where an attack has been declared, the attacking force (the original attacker and his allies) and the defending force (as found in Step 3). Garrison army factors (including those on depots) of a major power that is not involved in the combat may remain in the area but are ignored for combat purposes.

7.4 THE SUPPLY STEP: Only corps and besieged forces must be supplied. Leaders and unbesieged cossacks, freikorps, guerillas and garrisons do not need supply.

7.4.1 FORAGING: "Foraging" represents living off the country. When a corps ceases movement it may elect (or be forced) to "forage" rather than use depot supply. If it has force marched, or is four or more areas from the nearest depot in a friendly valid supply chain, not adjacent to an invasion supply depot and/or supply source or no money is available for depot supply then it must forage for supply. FORAGING PROCEDURE: A die is rolled for each foraging corps as it completes movement (but after resolving any 7.3.8 procedures that may be caused by its movement). This die roll is modified as in, if any modifiers apply. The modified die result is than compared with the forage value of the area with the lowest forage value of all the areas passed through or stopped in, not counting the area in which the corps started (unless the corps did not move and remained in one area), during its Land Movement Step. If the modified die result is equal to or less than this forage value, there is no effect. For each modified die point above the forage value, the corps must lose one army factor. FORAGING MODIFIERS: When the die is rolled for a foraging corps, the following cumulative modifiers may apply: Other Corps In The Area: For each other unbesieged corps in the area it currently occupies, whether that major power's or not (including friendly and enemy corps and corps which have, and corps which have not, already moved during this step), “+1" is added to the result of the die, up to a maximum of "+2". NOTE: This does not include corps that leave the area as a result of the 7.3.8 procedures. Unused Movement Points: For each movement point the corps did not use, one is subtracted from the die. EXCEPTION: The die is not modified due to unused movement points if the corps is besieging or plans to besiege enemy forces in the area. Force Marching: If the corps force marched, "+1" is added to the die roll. Winter: If it is winter, "+2" is added added to the die roll unless the corps is not in the "winter zone" (see 9.0). In Own Territory: If the corps did not move into an area outside the major power's territory this Turn and is not now in such an area, "+1" (Errata:) "-1" is subtracted from the die roll. FORAGING LOSSES: The factor or factors removed for foraging losses may be any in the corps of the controlling player's choice, with these restrictions: Any factors that were part of the corps during its movement are eligible to be used for forage losses. If possible, forage losses must come out of the factors actually in the corps when movement is completed. Corps counters may be removed as a result of forage losses only if all factors that were part of the corps during its movement are lost to foraging. If only one factor remains after foraging losses are removed, that factor must be in the corps and the corps counter must be left on the map. For example, a corps with three regular infantry factors detaches two of these factors into a city in an area passed through and then rolls a loss of two factors while foraging. Since the corps can only be removed if all factors are lost, the two detached factors would have to be the ones lost. If the corps had started with five factors, the two forage losses would come out of the corps (leaving one factor in the corps) and the two derached factors would remain in their city. If the corps had started with four factors, one of the forage losses would have to come out of the corps (leaving one factor in the corps) and the other loss would have to be one of the detached factors. If all corps counters in an area are removed due to foraging losses, any leaders with the removed corps are immediately removed from the map. They may be returned to the map during any later Army Reinforcement Step (see 5.3).

7.4.2 REGULAR (DEPOT) SUPPLY: After the movement and foraging of corps is complete, any corps which did not forage must now pay for supply. Depot supply, while costing money prevents army factors being lost. Paying for depot supply is as follows: PAYING FOR DEPOT SUPPLY: Any corps in a depot area or which can trace an unblocked route to a depot may use depot supply. Besieged port city garrisons (regardless of size) may also use depot supply (see 7.4.3 and 7.4.4). The costs for all corps and separate garrisons are summed and any fraction rounded up, that amount then being deducted from that major power's current monetary total. A major power may not use depot supply for a corps if it doesn't have enough money to pay the cost and such corps must instead forage for supply. Corps Depot Supply: A corps in the same area as a depot being part of a valid supply chain costs half a money point to supply. Other corps up to 3 unblocked areas away from a depot pay the number of areas they are away from a depot in a valid supply chain in money points. For example, a corps 3 areas away pays 3 money points to get supply. The route through intervening areas traced from a corps to a depot may not be blocked by forces (same rules as for blocking a supply chain (see Besieged Port Garrison Depot Supply: Besieged port city garrisons using sea supply through a depot in the port city cost half a money point per garrison to supply. Besieged port city garrisons using invasion supply cost one money point per garrison to supply as they are in an adjacent area. Winter Depot Supply Cost Increases: All costs are doubled in winter for corps or garrisons within the winter zone (see 9.0). ALLIED DEPOT SUPPLY: Major powers may have their forces live off the depots and/or supply chains of their allies, but those allies must pay the costs involved. Naturally, permission is required for this.

7.4.3 *SEA SUPPLY: All or a portion of supply chain can be validly traced across sea areas. TRACING SEA SUPPLY: In order trace supply across sea areas there must be one of a major power's depots in each of the two friendly controlled ports or port areas between which supply is to be traced. At least one of these ports must contain a fleet(s) of the major power and/or an ally and that port must be a supply source or be able to trace a valid supply chain via depots to a supply source. Neither port may be blockaded. If these conditions are fulfilled, the ports are valid links in a supply chain. The effect of this is as if the depots were in adjacent areas (regardless of the number of sea areas actually between them) for all purposes including placement of reinforcements. BLOCKING SEA SUPPLY: Apart from fleets in the blockade boxes of ports used for sea supply, enemy fleets do not interrupt such a sea supply chain. DARDANELLES/ICE LINE SUPPLY EFFECTS: Sea supply may not be traced into or through the Dardanelles sea area without the permission of the major power controlling Constantinople (if any) nor into or out of an area north of the ice line during winter months. PORT CITY SUPPLY: Depots may be constructed in an unblockaded friendly controlled port even if besieged provided there exists a friendly unblockaded sea supply source (see 7.2.2). This allows forces in that port to live off sea supply (rather than besieged supply). This is the only case where depots are considered to be inside the city, rather than in the surrounding area. At the end of a player's Movement Step a depot in a port city is moved into the surrounding area if the city is no longer besieged. If there is already an enemy depot in the surrounding area, the enemy depot is destroyed. A depot in a port city is immediately removed when there is no longer an unblockaded sea supply source. A depot in a port city may be immediately destroyed or converted to a friendly supply depot (if it would then be part of a valid supply chain) and moved into the surrounding area when the forces in the city accept honors of war, surrender, and/or are eliminated.

7.4.4 *INVASION SUPPLY: A depot may be constructed on a fleet in a sea area and used to provide supply for all corps and/or besieged port city garrisons into all adjacent land areas (but not beyond) at the normal depot supply money point costs. Although this is normally used to supply disembarking corps, it can be used without the need for an actual "invasion" (disembarking corps). (CLARIFICATION: A depot built on a ship must be that of the same major power.) Invasion supply can only be used if an unblockaded friendly controlled port that is a supply source or contains a depot that is part of a valid supply chain exists from which supply can be traced to the fleet, If the fleet containing the depot should move for any reason, the depot is lost. Invasion supply does not allow reinforcements to be placed, nor can it be a link in a chain of supply --it only directly supplies corps in adjacent land areas. No more than one depot for invasion supply may be placed in any one sea area. Invasion supply is not possible in a sea area north of the ice line during winter months. If the route from the port to the fleet must go into or through the Dardanelles sea area, the permission of the major power controlling the area (if any --see 10.7) is required.

7.4.5 BESIEGED SUPPLY: Unless eligible for sea or invasion supply, besieged garrisons and corps must check for supply by the foraging method, using the city supply value (which equals the number of spires in the city picture) rather than the forage value of the area containing the city. BESIEGED SUPPLY DIE MODIFIER: The foraging die roll modifiers are not used for besieged supply. Instead, for every full 5 army factors in the besieged city (regardless of whether the factors are part of a corps or merely a garrison) "+1" is added to the die, to a maximum of "+2". For example, a city with 5-9 army factors would have "+1" added to the die roll. No other modifiers apply. BESIEGED FORAGING LOSSES: For each point of the die roll over the city supply value, one army factor of the besieged garrison and/or corps is lost. If all the besieged army factors are lost, any besieged leaders become the prisoners of the besiegers and the besieging forces may immediately detach factors to control the city. NOTE: Unbesieged corps in a city use the forage value of the area in which they are in, not the city supply value. BESIEGING FORCES: Besieging forces may live off regular supply or forage. If they forage they are considered to have spent their full movement allowance before dicing for supply and use the area supply value and normal modifiers. This occurs even if it is the first Turn of the siege.

7.5 THE LAND COMBAT STEP: At the end of all movement and supply in a player's sequence the land combat procedure commences.

7.5.1 GENERAL RULES OF LAND COMBAT: If at the end of all movement of the phasing major power, enemy forces (excluding guerillas --see occupy the same area as its corps, freikorps or cossacks, the phasing major power must attack in those areas (also see 7.3.7 and 7.3.8). The phasing side is the "attacker" and the non-phasing side is the "defender." DEFENDER RETIREMENT INTO CITY: Any forces or portion of forces upon whom an attack is declared may immediately retire into any friendly controlled or vacant, and unbesieged city in that area but not so as to exceed that city's garrison capacity. If there are several defending major powers wishing to retire into the city than agreement must be reached on who shall retire into the city. If no agreement can be reached, then none may retire. If they all do so retire, the attackers may, if desired, be placed on top of the forces and a siege occurs. If any portion of a defending force does not retire into a city, the attack continues against that portion. A city must be able to hold all of the factors of entire corps that move in (plus any other factors that may be in or moved into the city). WHO MAY PARTICIPATE IN LAND COMBATS: All corps, cossacks, freikorps, depot garrisons, and attacking guerillas in an area participate in field or trivial combat in the area. Forces inside cities are not included in field or trivial combat (they may only attack or be attacked via siege combat, see 7.5.4). GENERAL SEQUENCE OF LAND COMBATS: All field, limited field and/or trivial combats may be resolved in any order at the phasing player's option. After a combat is completed, the phasing player's forces may immediately occupy and/or detach factors to occupy any friendly-controlled or vacant city in the area subject to usual restrictions (see 7.3.3) --The phasing player's forces then conduct all siege combats (this can include forces which Just took part in a field or trivial combat --see 7.5.4) in any desired order.

7.5.2 FIELD COMBAT PROCEDURE: Field combats simulate open-field battles. Individual field combats may be resolved in any order determined by the phasing player, and may be intermixed with any limited field and/or trivial combats. A combat in one area must be completed before commencing another combat. A complete example of a field combat is found in Each individual field combat occurs in the following order: STEP ONE --SELECTION OF CHITS: Both players select an Operational Possibilities chit. There are different chits for the attacker (gray) and the defender (white). An outflank chit may be chosen only if a force consists of at least two non-artillery corps and has a leader. STEP TWO --OUTFLANK ANNOUNCEMENT: Each player declares whether or not he has picked the outflank chit. If both players or neither player picked the outflank chit, or if the attacking player picked the outflank chit and the defending player picked the cordon chit skip Step 3 and go directly to Step 4. STEP THREE --DIVIDING AN OUTFLANKING FORCE: The player who picked the outflank chit must divide his forces into a "pinning" and an "outflanking" force. Pinning Force Composition: The player designates part of his force (at least one non-artillery corps plus all leaders, all garrison factors on depots, artillery factors and attacking guerillas) as the "pinning force" before the other side reveals its tactical chit --only these will fight until the arrival of the outflanking force. Outflanking Force Composition: The rest, comprising of at least one corps plus all cossacks and/or freikorps, are considered to be "moving around the flank" and are not included for combat purposes (which includes cavalry superiority --see option until they "arrive." EXCEPTION: They are included for determination of the base morale levels (see STEP FOUR --REVEAL CHITS: Both players now reveal their chosen chits, and cross-index their operational possibilities chits on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART on the Game Card. If the defender did not choose "Withdraw", skip Step 5 and go directly to Step 6. STEP FIVE --RESOLVE WITHDRAWALS: Any player who chose "Withdraw" now dices to see if his force does withdraw. Withdrawal Avoids Battle: If the entire force does withdraw, skip Steps 6-13 and go directly to Step 14. Withdrawal Procedure: If a player has picked the "Withdraw" chit, he dices to determine if he successfully withdraws. To be successful the die roll must be less than or equal to the appropriate strategic rating. If the opposing side has chosen "Probe", the withdrawal is automatically successful and no die roll is necessary. If some other chit has been chosen by the attacker then the defending player rolls a die, comparing the result to his commander's strategic rating (see for determining a commander). If he has no commander, each corps must be diced for separately, comparing the roll to its intrinsic strategic rating. These strategic ratings may be modified by notes on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART on the Game Card. Cossacks and freikorps that are with corps attempting to withdraw may attempt to withdraw with them using the rules in for their withdrawal. Guerillas do not need to withdraw. Also see for withdrawing from an outflanking force. Each corps which withdraws is retreated by the method given in Retreat after Combat (see, except that the retreat is conducted by the controlling player. There is no pursuit. If any corps, depot garrison and/or cossack andlor freikorps remains, the combat is fought on the combat tables found on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART. STEP SIX --REVEAL FORCES/MORALE LEVELS: Both players reveal their forces and determine their final morale levels. Determining Morale Levels: Morale levels represent a force's "morale", and the higher the number the better. "Base morale levels" can be calculated by one of two methods. Players should decide before the game begins which method to use for their game. Also see the NATIONAL MORALE VALUES CHART on the Game Card. Method One: The base morale level is calculated by adding up the products of the number of army factors having the same morale value, and dividing this total by the total number of army factors and rounding up to the next tenth of a point. Guerillas, freikorps and cossacks may be included in combat with a morale value of "1.0" Militia are included with a morale value of "2.0" Artillery are included with the morale of the major power's regular infantry. Guard infantry have a morale value of "5.0" Other infantry and cavalry have their morale values indicated on the back of their corps counters. For example, if a force of 51 total army factors has 21 factors at morale "3.0", 20 factors at morale "4.0" and 10 factors at morale "5.0" this is: 21 times 3 plus 20 times 4 plus 10 times 5=193 divided by 51 factors= 3. 784 which rounds to a base morale level of "3.8". Method Two: Method One for the determination of the base morale level of a force can be involved and almost certainly involves the use of a pocket calculator. Therefore, we offer this simpler (and faster) alternative; first, determine the "primary component" of the force. This will be that major power with the most corps present, including controlled minor free state corps (with equal numbers of corps present, the primary component is that major power with the lowest basic morale). The "basic morale" of this primary component provides the base number for determining the base morale level of the whole force. The basic morales are: Great Britain "4.5", France "4.0", Russia, Austria and Prussia "3.5", Spain and Turkey "3.0" (also see the NATIONAL MORALE VALUES CHART on the Game Card). The basic morale is increased by "+0.1" for every guard factor and reduced by "-0.1" for every militia, cossack, freikorps, guerilla, feudal or minor free state infantry or cavalry factor with a morale value of "2.0" or less (see the backs of the minor country corps counters) in the force, even if not in the primary component. The basic morale may not be increased by more than a net "+0.5" nor decreased by more than a net "-1.0". This is the base morale level of the force. For example, Austria has an army contosed of 3 Guard, 28 regular infantry and 6 militia. Its basic morale is "3.5" plus "0.3 " (3 Guard factors) minus "0.6" (6 militia factors = "3.2" base morale level. Final Morale Levels: The "final morale level" for each "day" is the base morale level minus "0.5" for each succeeding day of the combat after the first and any modifiers indicated on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART on the Game Card. The final morale level is the point at which the force will break. For example, a force with a base morale level of "3.2 " will also use that figure for its final morale level on the first day of a combat. On the second day of a combat, the final morale level will be "3.2" minus "0.5" equals "2.7". Reveal Forces: Both sides simultaneously reveal corps identities, the exact size and composition of their forces and their final morale levels. STEP SEVEN --FIND COMBAT TABLES: The OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART refers each player to a series of three sets of combat tables on the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART (both on the Game Card). One combat table is used per player per "round" for the three rounds for which a combat "day" lasts. The attacker uses those tables designated by "A" in the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART, The defender uses those tables designated by "D". For example, if the attacker selected the echelon chit and the defender selected the counterattack chit the attacker's combat tables would be "1-2 " (first round), " 3-4" (second round) and "2-4" (third round) and the defender's combat tables would be "3-1", "4-1" and "2-1". Each combat table is identified by two numbers (ie. “3-1"). The first number represents the "casualty level" and the second number represents the "morale level" of the combat table and these levels are cross-indexed on the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART to find the combat table used for a round of combat. For example, the "1-5" combat table is the one located in the lower left-hand corner of the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART. River Crossing Combat Tables: If any of the attacking forces have crossed a river, a crossing arrow and/or disembarked from at sea to enter the combat area then the river sections (found only in the assault, escalated assault, echelon and probe columns on the cordon line) of the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART are used where appropriate for the first day's combat. If combat continues into a second day, then the normal sections are used. Outflanking Tables To Use: Until the outflanking force "arrives", the first set (labelled "1st") of combat resolution tables on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART are used, with the percentage losses caused by the outflanking side being based on the pinning force army factors only. Once the outflanking force has "arrived", the second set labelled "2nd") of combat resolution tables are used with each army factor in the outflanking army factors of the force counting as two army factors for the purpose of determining percentage losses. For example, an outflanking attacker has a pinning force of 20 factors with a 10 factor outflanking force and faces a defender who chose the counterattack operational possibilities chit. In the first combat round, the attacker would have 20 factors on the "2-1" combat table and the defender would use all defending factors on the "2-3" combat table. Assume that the attacker loses 4 factors in the first combat round and that the outflanking forces arrive (see 7 5.2.12) for the second combat round. For the second combat round, the attacker would have 16factors (left from the pinning force) plus two times 10 factors in the outflankingforce equals 20 factors for a total attackingforce treated as 36 factors on the "4-4" combat table and the defender would use all surviving defending factors on the "3-1" combat table. Combat Table Modifiers: These combat table numbers may be cumulatively modified by terrain effects in the area where a field combat occurs, although the casualty and morale level numbers may never be modified above " 5" nor below " 1", regardless of the modifiers that apply. These modifiers are: Forest Modifiers: In forest areas the casualty level is decreased by "-1" for both sides (e.g., combat table "2-2 becomes "1-2"). Mountain Modifiers: In mountain areas the attacker's casualty level is reduced by "-1". Desert Modifiers: In desert areas the morale level is increased by "+1" for both sides (e.g., combat table "2-2" becomes "2-3"). Marsh Modifiers: In marsh areas the casualty level is decreased by "-1" and the morale level is increased by "+1" for both sides (e.g., combat table "2-2" becomes "1-3"). STEP EIGHT-GUARD AND ARTILLERY USE (OPTIONAL): Guard committment and artillery bombardments (see options 12.3.4 and 12.3.5), now take place in the order guard conunittment followed by artillery bombardment, if relevant. STEP NINE-COMBAT RESOLUTION: The opposing players each throw one die each and crossgrid their modified rolls on their respective combat tables on the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART for each round, applying the result. Combat is considered to be conducted simultaneously so both forces take their losses at the same time. Die Roll Modifiers: See 10.6.1 for determining commanders and their tactical ratings. The die roll is modified by commander differences. Use the COMMANDER CHART on the Game Card and crossgrid the opposing commander's tactical ratings to find the modifiers. For example, if the attacking commander's tactical rating is "4" and the defending commander's tactical rating is "3", the attacker's die roll is modified by "+1". Any optional modifier (see is cumulative with the commander modifiers, although the maximum cumulative modifier can never exceed "+1". Commander tactical ratings are recalculated after every round of combat (they can change if reinforcing corps or a new reinforcing commander arrive). If desired, a player may declare at the start of a combat round that his commander's tactical rating is less than it actually is for purposes of determining the die roll modifiers on the COMMANDER CHART. Percentage Loss --Types of Casualties: The "percentage loss" ("%LS") result is the percentage (see the CASUALTY PERCENTAGE TABLE on the Game Card) of that side's number of army factors which the other side must remove as losses. Losses incurred may be taken in any fashion within the following conditions: Where possible, militia casualties may be taken only until (not including) the round in which the cumulative morale loss of the army equals or exceeds "2.0." In the round in which a side breaks, one of its losses must be cavalry (any type-regular, feudal, cossack or freikorps), if possible. Factors that become casualties in one combat round may not be used in later rounds. Morale Loss: The "morale loss" ("MRLS") is subtracted from the other side's final morale level. These are accumulated from round to round. STEP TEN --VICTORY AND DEFEAT: When a force is eliminated or its total morale loss reaches or exceeds its final morale level it breaks, may be pursued and must retreat (unless totally eliminated). The combat is over and no further combat rounds are resolved. This may occur at the end of any round. Skip this step and go to Step 11 if the field combat continues. If the combat is over, perform this step, then skip to Step 14. Winning a Field Combat: A major power wins a field combat when the enemy side or an enemy pinning force either breaks or is completely eliminated. "Breaking": When a side's total morale loss equals or exceeds its final morale level, it" breaks" (retreats from the field) and combat ceases after that round has been completed. In the round in which a side breaks, at least one of that side's losses incurred must be cavalry, if possible. Pinning Force Defeat: If a pinning force breaks or is eliminated before the outflanking force "arrives", the whole side (including the outflanking force) is considered to be broken and may be pursued. If the pinning force is eliminated before the outflanking force "arrives", all enemy leaders present are captured by the victor and the outflanking force is broken and may be pursued. If a pinning force is eliminated, any excess casualties caused to that side go on the outflanking force. Political Points For Winning/Losing Field Combats: The victor now gains political points and the loser loses them, recorded on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card). Half a political point is gained or lost for each corps of the defeated side (rounding fractions up) used during any round of that combat (this includes corps in outflanking forces that never arrive, but not reinforcing corps that do not arrive) up to a maximum of "+/-3" political points. For this purpose a single corps which begins or reinforces a battle with more than 20 factors in it is treated as 2 corps. If the victor was commanded by the NAPOLEON leader, they get one extra political point. If the loser was commanded by the NAPOLEON leader, they lose two extra political points. Pursuit After Combat: When a side breaks, the victor may launch a "pursuit" using the victor's cavalry factors. Pursuit procedure is as follows: Pursuit Class: The "pursuit class" is determined from the PURSUIT CLASS TABLE on the Game Card by crossgridding the victor's total morale loss in the combat with the number of combat rounds completed. Combats going into two or more days always use the "3+" rounds. The number found is the "pursuit class number", which is then applied on the PURSUIT TABLE. For example, if the victor had a "2.6 " total morale loss when the loser breaks at the end of the second combat round, the "2-2.9" line is crossgridded with the "2" column tofind a "3" pursuit class. EXCEPTION: If a pursuit is ordered against forces withdrawing after a day's combat rather than breaking, automatically use a "1" pursuit class (prior to applying any modifiers). Pursuit Class Modifiers: The following cumulative modifiers all apply when using the PURSUIT TABLE: Cavalry Leader Present: "+1" is added to the die roll if a cavalry leader (denoted by a cavalry leader symbol on the leader counter) is present on the victor's side at the combat even if he was not the commander, so long as at least one cavalry factor of the leader's major power takes part in the pursuit. In Forest, Mountain or Desert: If the combat took place in a forest, mountain or desert area, the pursuit class column used on the PURSUIT TABLE is shifted one column to the right of the column indicated by the pursuit class number (a "-1" modification). For example, if the pursuit class number from the PURSUIT CLASS TABLE is "3" and the combat area is forest, mountain or desert, the shift is from the "3" to the "2" column. In Marsh: If the combat took place in a marsh area, the pursuit class column used on the PURSUIT TABLE is shifted two columns to the right of the column indicated by the pursuit class number (a "-2" modification). No Pursuit: Any result modified to less than a class 1 pursuit means that no pursuit takes place. Pursuit Losses: Roll the die and crossgrid the modified die roll number with the modified pursuit class column on the PURSUIT TABLE. The result is the percentage loss of the total (this does include cavalry factors that were in an outflanking force that did not arrive) cavalry factors in the victor's force inflicted on the broken force. Every loss in the broken force not taken in cavalry (which includes cossacks and freikorps) is taken as three non-militia or six militia factors (i.e., 1 cavalry =3 infantry =6 militia). If the entire losing force is eliminated by pursuit, all losing leaders are captured by the victor. Retreat After Losing A Combat: The loser is retreated one area by the victor. This occurs after pursuit (if any). All retreats must be into an adjacent land area that is closest (any closest area, if several qualify equally) to the nearest depot of any nationality in the defeated force, or if none is on the map, towards that force's nearest controlled national capital city. A retreating force may never be split up. If the area retreated to contains an unbesieged enemy corps, cossack, freikorps or depot garrison, the force is retreated one more area (same rules as, etc., until an open area is reached. Retreat across a crossing arrow or onto ships is not permitted. A force may not retreat into the same area twice in the same retreat. A force must surrender (all army factors and leaders in the force become prisoners) if no retreat route is available. Unusual Field Combat Results: Sometimes field combats may have unusual conclusions. Break and Eliminated: If a side's forces break in the same combat round in which the enemy forces are completely eliminated (or a pinning force is eliminated before the outflankers arrive) then the broken major power wins the combat and does not retreat (an outflanking force whose pinning force was eliminated does retreat. Political points are gained by the winner (survivor) and lost by the loser of this victory as per Both Break: If both forces break in the same combat round and there are survivors on both sides then neither side wins, gains or loses political points, or is pursued. Only the attacker retreats --as per, except that the attacker retreats his own forces. STEP ELEVEN --REINFORCING ATTEMPTS: After each round of a combat "day," players may attempt to reinforce from adjacent land areas. Reinforcing A Field Combat: After each round of field combat --corps, cossacks, frelkorps and guerillas in adjacent land areas may attempt to reinforce. Furthermore, unbesieged corps, cossacks, frelkorps or guerillas (for an attacker) in a city in the same or an adjacent area to the field combat may also attempt to reinforce. Reinforcement across a crossing arrow or by disembarking is not permitted. Forces may not attempt to reinforce if they have already or will take part in another combat this same major power sequence. (Errata:) Trivial combats do not count as a combat to prevent attempts to reinforce. If all of a side's forces in an as yet unresolved trivial combat leave to reinforce another combat, the trivial combat does not take place. Allied forces may take part in a combat round only if at war with all the major powers on one side, by reinforcing the other side (unless also at war with a major power on that side) even if they would not otherwise move in this major power's sequence of the Land Movement Step. Reinforcing Procedure: If the reinforcing forces have a leader (determine a commander as in, if there is more than one leader) with them (essential to reinforce with cossacks, freikorps and/or guerillas), the leader's strategic value is used when dicing to reinforce with all, or as many of the corps in that area he chooses as a single unit, otherwise each corps dices separately to reinforce. The corrimander's strategic rating or less needs to be rolled to reinforce. Strategic Rating Modifiers For Reinforcing: A reinforcing commander's or corps' strategic rating is reduced by "-1" if it occupies a mountain, forest or marsh area, or wishes to reinforce across a river. The reductions are not cumulative --the maximum reduction never exceeds "-1". A reduction may result in corps being unable to reinforce at all. Pinning Force Reinforcements: Any friendly forces that reinforce a battle on a side with a pinning and an outflanking force are attached to the pinning force, not to the outflanking force. Using Reinforcements: A side's final morale level is not changed due to the arrival of reinforcements but its cavalry factors (not doubled for this purpose) are counted for determining cavalry superiority (see option and all of its army factors may be added to the side's army factors for determining percentage losses on the enemy. A reinforcing leader may take command if applies. STEP TWELVE --ARRIVAL OF OUTFLANKING FORCES: After the first and second combat rounds of the day players may attempt to roll for the arrival of outflanking forces. Outflanking Force Arrival (?): At the end of the first round of combat the outflanking player rolls a die and compares the number rolled to the commander's strategic rating. If the die roll is less than or equal to the cornmander's strategic rating, as modified (all modifiers are cumulative) by terrain and notes on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART, the outflank is successful and the outflanking forces "arrives", otherwise, the outflankers must dice again for possible arrival at the end of the 2nd round. For outflanking, Commanders' strategic ratings are reduced by "-1" if the area containing the reinforcing forces is a forest, mountain or marsh area. The strategic rating of a commander is increased by "+2" at the end of the second combat round. Withdraw vs. Outflanking: If the opposing side chose the outflank chit and the outflanking force does not arrive after the first round, all remaining corps of a withdraw chit side are withdrawn successfully before the second round is fought. This is handled as a normal withdrawal, as in There is no pursuit.

If this is not the third round of the day, repeat Steps 7-12, using the combat tables appropriate for each combat round. STEP THIRTEEN --”END OF DAY" WITHDRAWAL/ADDITIONAL COMBAT: At the conclusion of three combat rounds (ie., one combat "day"), if neither side has been eliminated or broken, the players have the choice to continue a battle or to end it. The opposing commanders should secretly note their intention to "fight" or "withdraw", then reveal their choices simultaneously. Withdrawing After A "Day" of Combat: Either or both sides may automatically withdraw if that was their choice. These withdrawals are handled as per losing a combat (see, but are conducted by the controlling players for their sides. If both sides choose to withdraw, both must leave the area and there are no pursuits. (Errata:) Since no one was defeated, no political points are gained or lost from the combat. New "Days" of Combat: If both players chose to fight, the combat goes into a further day (three rounds more). New Operational Possibilities chits are chosen, etc., repeating Steps 1-12. The final morale levels used are those of the first day less "-0.5" for each succeeding day plus any OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART modifiers. Final morale levels are otherwise not re-calculated even if reinforcements arrived. Any outflanking forces that have not yet arrived rejoin the pinning force "overnight," so that all forces are once again united at the start of each day. Possible reinforcing forces do not arrive overnight. STEP FOURTEEN --DEPOTS AFTER FIELD BATTLES: If there are any enemy supply depots in the area with only friendly forces remaining, then that supply depot may be destroyed or converted to a friendly supply depot if it would then be part of a valid supply chain (see EXAMPLE OF FIELD COMBAT: Turkey is at war with Russia. In its Land Movement Step it moves with 7 corps containing 18 feudal infantry, 18 feudal cavalry and 14 Janissary (regular infantry) factors into an area containing 4 Russian corps with 6 Guard infantry, 17 regular infantry, 13 militia and 1 regular cavalry factors. These forces are not revealed until after cross-referencing on the OPERATI0NAL POSSIBILITIES CHART occurs.
STEP ONE (see The Turkish player chooses from the attacker's set of operational possibilities chits and the Russian player from the defender's set.
STEP TWO (see Next, each player declares whether or not they have chosen "outflank ". Neither has, so Step Three (see is skipped.
STEP FOUR (see Turkey now reveals he has chosen the “assault" chit and Russia shows the "cordon " chit. Since the Russians did not choose the "withdraw " chit, Step Five (see is skipped.
STEP SIX (see Morale (using Method One) for Turkey is: 36 (feudal infantry and cavalrv factors) times 2.0 morale value plus 14 (Janissary infantry factors) times 3. 0 morale value equals 114 divided by 50 army factors equals 2.28, which round up to "2.3" base andfinal morale level. Morale for Russia is: 6 (guard infantry factors) times 5.0 morale value plus 17 (regular infantry factors) times 3.0 morale value plus 13 (militia factors) times 2.0 morale value plus 1 (regular cavalry factor) times 4.0 morale value equals 111 divided by 37 army factors equals "3.0" base and final morale level. Both sides reveal their sizes (number of army factors) and compositions (types of army factors).
STEP SEVEN-FIRST ROUND (see Cross-referencing on the OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES CHART indicates that for the 1rst round Turkey is on the "4-1" table and Russia on the "2-1" table. No terrain modifiers apply. Step Eight (see is skipped, as those options are not being used.
STEP NINE-FIRST ROUND (see Both players have a leader with a modified tactical rating of "2", which results in no leader die roll modifiers from the COMMANDER CHART. If option were used (it is not), Turkey would have a " +1" die roll modifier for (8 feudal cavalry versus 1 regular cavalry factor) cavalry superiority. Turkey, on the "4-1" table, rolls a "4, " which causes a 10 percentage loss (10% of 50 Turkish army factors =5 Russian army factors lost) and a "-1.0" morale loss. The Russians can take all of their army factor losses in militia factors as their total morale loss is less than "2.0". Russia, on the "2-1" table, rolls a "3", which causes a 5 percentage loss (5 % of 37 Russian army factors =2 Turkish army factors lost) and a "-0.2" morale loss. The Turks take both of the army factor losses as feudal infantry factors. As neither side breaks nor is eliminated and there are no reinforcements or flanking forces involved, Steps Ten through Twelve are skipped (see 75.2.10- and play moves to the second combat round.
STEP SEVEN -SECOND ROUND: On the second round Turkey is on the "4-3" table and Russia is on the "2-1" table.
STEP NINE -SECOND ROUND: Again, no die roll modifiers. Turkey, on the "4-3" table, rolls another "4", which causes a 15 percentage loss (15 % of 48 surviving Turkish army factors =7 Russian army factors lost) and a "-2.0" morale loss. Russia, on the "2-1" table, rolls a "4", which causes a 5 percentage loss (5 % of 32 Russian army factors =2 Turkish army factors lost) and a “0.5" morale loss. The Turks again eliminate two feudal infantry factors. Russia has broken as total morale loss is “ -3.0" ("-1.0 " in round one plus "-2.0" in round two, exactly equalling the Russian final morale value), therefore one of the losses inflicted in the last round must be cavalry (the Russian loses his only regular cavalry factor) and none can be militia (if possible) as morale loss has exceeded a total of "-2.0" this round (6 Russian regular infantry factors are removed). Russia now has 6 guard, 11 regular infantry and 8 militia factors remaining.
STEP TEN (see Having broken the Russians and having cavalry, Turky now pursues the Russians. As it was the second round in which the Russians broke and Turkey has lost a total of "- 0.7" morale, checking the PURSUIT CLASS TABLE shows a "5" pursuit class. On the PURSUIT TABLE, Turkey rolls a "5", which means 60% of 18 Turkish Feudal cavalry factors =11 pursuit loses to the Russians. This is equivalent to 33 regular infantry and/or guard factors which is a lot more than the Russian has, therefore his force is wiped out and the leader(s) captured. Turkey gains 2 political points and Russia loses 2, as there were 4 corps on the losing side.

7.5.3 TRIVIAL COMBATS: Combats in which one side initially consists solely of garrison factors on a depot, cossacks, freikorps and/or guerillas not in cities must be resolved using trivial combat. Players may also resolve any other field or limited field combats in this manner, if both commanders agree. Trivial combats are resolved similarly to field combats, but the procedure is much simplified. No operational possibilities chits are chosen, but commander (see and cavalry superiority (see option modifiers are included as for field combats. Trivial combats may not he reinforced (see unless trivial combat procedure is being used to resolve a field or limited field combat. Combat is fought using the "5-2" combat table for both sides for all three combat rounds, subject to modification for terrain (see and guard commitment (see option 12.3.4). Additional "days" of combat may be fought using trivial combat. Any type of factor may be removed as a casualty, at the controlling player's option, during any round of a trivial combat (ignore the restrictions of The normal field combat methods of determining final morale values, breaks, retreats, withdrawls at the end of a "day" and pursuit rules are followed. Depot and city garrisons cannot retreat and losing survivors that break must surrender if not eliminated by a pursuit. No political points are gained or lost in trivial combats. EXCEPTION: If both conunanders had agreed to resolve what could have been a field or limited field combat by using trivial combat procedures, the normal political point changes are made (see

7.5.4 SIEGES: These represent the surrounding and reduction of garrisoned enemy cities. A major power's corps may besiege any occupied city in territory controlled by a major power or minor neutral with which it is at war or any city occupied by enemy troops wherever it is located. Guerillas, freikorps and cossacks may only conduct sieges in conjunction with friendly corps. Depot garrisons may never take part in sieges. The forces besieging a city are the "besiegers, " and the garrison inside the city are the "defenders". A phasing force that just attacked and won a field or trivial combat in an area may then besiege an enemy city in that same area if all corps in the phasing force used depot (regular, sea and/or invasion) supply and/or did not use unused movement points to modify a foraging roll (see BESIEGER ASSAULT ATTEMPTS: A besieging major power may select to launch "assault" attempts. For assault attempts a die is rolled and the result referenced to the SIEGE TABLE on the Game Card. Assault Attempt Modifiers: The die roll for assault attempts is cumulatively modified as follows: Cit SiegeValue: The city siege value(the number of fleches in the city picture on the mapboard) is subtracted from the die roll. Undergarrisoned: "+1" is added if the city is not garrisoned to within 5 factors of the city's garrison capacity. For example,if the garrison capacity is 15, one will be added if there are 9 or less factors in the city. Assault Attempt Results: The results from the SIEGE TABLE are resolved as follows: Sortie ?: If "sortie?" is the result the defender may elect to "sortie" (historically, in a sortie a besieged force would launch a limited surprise attack on the besiegers) out against the besieging force. In a sortie, the defending player rolls a die. On a roll of "5" or "6" the defender loses one army factor (defending player's choice), and any other result is a one army factor loss (besieging player's choice) to the besieger. If the defender chooses not to roll a die, nothing happens. NR: No results. Nothing happens. Breach: If "breach" (indicating that a gap has been blown through the defender's walls) is the result on the SIEGE TABLE, the following may be done: Honors of War: The defender may ask for the "honors of war" (EXCEPTION: Turkish and Spanish defenders and their minor allies may not). If honors of war are granted by the besieger, the garrison corps and/or garrison army factors are moved to the nearest friendly-controlled unbesieged city and/or city area. If there is no such city, the garrison surrenders or fights instead. Note that minor free state garrisons may not leave their own country, and if forced to, would have to surrender or fight. There are no political points for the honors of war. Surrender: If honors of war are not granted, or not requested, the garrison may surrender (all become prisoners) or may fight an assault combat, at the defending player's option. If the defender fights and is broken, the surviving defending army factors must surrender. There are no political points for a surrender. Assault: If there are no honors of war or surrender, the besieger must fight and assault the city. Assault Combat Resolution: These simulate attempts to "storm" a city by an assault through a breach. Assault Combat is resolved similarly to trivial combat, but is even more simplified. The besieging forces fight on the "5-1" combat table and the defenders on the "5-2" combat table of the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART on the Game Card for a maximum of three rounds (assault combats never last more than one "day") with no modifications for terrain, leaders and/or cavalry superiority. All available factors on both side must participate. There are no pursuits and assault combats may not be reinforced. Final morale levels are determined as per (Errata:) Final morale levels are determined and forces revealed as per Any type of army factor may be removed as a casualty, at the controlling player's option, during any round of an assault combat. If the besieger loses or does not win (break or eliminate the defenders) within three rounds, the siege is resumed, with no futher combat this player sequence. If the besieger wins (the defender is eliminated or broken), then the city is captured and all surviving army factors and leaders are surrendered. Political Points For Siege Assault Combat Winners: If the assaulted city contains a corps and/or is a "fortress" (has one or more fleches), the defender gets one political point if the besieger loses (is eliminated or broken) or does not win within three rounds, and the besieger gets one political point if the city is captured. Record on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card. No political points are ever lost on either side, regardless of the outcome and none are gained if the city has a no corps and/or is not a fortress (has no fleches). DEFENDER ATTACKS BESIEGER: Defenders may attack besiegers during the defending player's sequence of a Land Combat Step, if desired. Garrison Attack Combats: These simulate a city garrison attacking the besiegers and are resolved similarly to siege assault combats, If the defending garrison or a portion thereof (all defending factors do not have to be used) chooses to attack, the defending major power uses the "5-1" combat table and the besieger (who must use all available factors) uses the "5-2" combat table on the COMBAT RESOLUTION CHART for a maximum of three rounds (garrison attack combats never last more than one "day") with no modifications for terrain, leaders, or cavalry superiority. There are no pursuits and these combats cannot be reinforced. Final morale levels are determined as per (Errata:) Final morale levels are determined and forces revealed as per Any type of army factor may be removed as a casualty, at the controlling player's option, during any round of a garrison attack combat. If the defending force loses or does not win (break or eliminate the besiegers) within three rounds, the siege is resumed, unless the combat eliminates every army factor in a garrison, in which case the city is captured. If the defender wins, the besieger retreats in accordance with the retreat after combat rules (see, but may not be pursued, and any previously besieged corps may, if desired, be immediately moved out of the city into the surrounding area. Political Points For Garrison Attack Combats: There are no political points gained or lost for garrison attack combats. Relieving Force -Limited Field Combats: If the besieged force attacks with the help of "relieving forces" (i.e., external corps that enter the area from another area) or such relieving forces attack without assistance from any part (all besieged factors do not have to be used) of the besieged force, a "limited" field combat instead of a defender attack combat is fought. Limited field combats are fought at the same time as field and trivial combats (ie., before any siege assault or defender attack combats). A limited field combat is a normal field combat (use all normal field combat rules) that may not exceed one "day" (three combat rounds) in length and uses the following special rules: Relieving Force Fails To Win: If the relieving force breaks or does not win within 3 rounds, the siege is resumed. The surviving siege defenders return to the besieged city and the entire relieving force returns to the area from which it entered the siege area (returns to any one of the areas from which it entered, if more than one). If all siege defenders were eliminated, the city is captured. There is no pursuit if the relieving force did not break, and, if it did break, only the relieving force may be pursued, not the siege defenders. Relieving Force Wins: If the besiegers break, they retreat in accordance with the normal retreat after combat rules (see, but may only be pursued by cavalry that is in the relieving force (not in the siege defender's force) and any previously besieged corps may, if desired, then be immediately moved out of the city into the surrounding area. Political Points For Limited Field Combats: Political points for winning and losing are assigned as for field combats (see To win or lose, one side must be broken or eliminated, otherwise the combat is considered a draw.

7.5.5 REMOVAL OF CORPS: At the end of a day's combat, when all casualties arc removed, excess corps counters emptied by the losses may also be removed from the mapboard. This may cause a change in a commander's tactical rating for the next day's combat (see

7.6 THE GUERILLA STEP: Guerilla creation and anti-guerilla operations occur in this step --see 10.1.1.

7.7 *THE CONQUEST STEP: This step is performed after all major power sequences are completed. It can be performed in any convenient order. Control flags are changed to show the conquest of minor countries and their change of control. The control flags are changed only if the capital of the minor country was occupied during the previous Turn and the conqueror has maintained uninterrupted and unbesieged occupation for the entire current Turn. A newly conquered minor country is always marked with a conquered control flag.

6.0 The Naval Phase


8.0 The Economic Phase