6.0 The Naval Phase

6.1 THE NAVAL PHASE SEQUENCE: At the beginning of this phase, Great Britain announces when in the following sequence he will be moving. The other major powers move in this order: Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, France, Spain.

6.1.1 MINOR FREE STATE SEQUENCE: All naval forces of minor free states move with their controlling major power.

6.1.2 COMBINED MOVE SEQUENCE: In order for a major power to move in the sequence of another major power, those major powers must be allies and must have announced combined movement during the Declaration of Combined Movement Step of the Political Phase. Combined major power movement is conducted in the sequence of the ally who would have moved last in the phase.

6.1.3 NAVAL PHASE STEPS: Each major power sequence of the Naval Phase is divided into Naval Movement and Naval Combat Steps. Each player completes both steps during his major power sequence before the next player commences his major power sequence. The player taking his sequence and his counters are described as "phasing" during that time and all other players and their counters are called "non-phasing".

6.2 THE NAVAL MOVEMENT STEPS: Major power players may move any or all of their fleets up to the their of their movement allowances during their sequence of a Naval Phase.

6.2.1 GENERAL NAVAL MOVEMENT RULES: Each fleet has a maximum movement allowance of "7" movement points. Phasing fleets may expend from "0" to "7" movement points each during their sequence. Movement points may not be accumulated from Turn to Turn nor may they be transferred among fleets.
6.2.1.1 SEA MOVEMENT COSTS: Each sea area entered costs one movement point.
6.2.1.2 PORT/BLOCKADE BOX MOVEMENT: It costs one point to move into a port from any of the sea areas touching its blockade box and vice-versa. It costs one movement point to enter a blockade box from an adjacent sea area or vice-versa. It costs no movement points to move between a port and its blockade box or vice-versa and all fleets entering or exiting ports are considered to do so by passing through the port's blockade box. To signify that a fleet is in port, it is placed on the coastline of the associated land area. A fleet(s) may enter a port controlled by another major power or neutral minor country only to attack a fleet(s) there or with the controlling major power's permission, even if the port city has no garrison. In no other cases may a fleet be located in a land area.
6.2.1.3 DARDANELLES MOVEMENT: A fleet may not enter the Dardanelles sea area unless that major power controls an unbesieged Constantinople, besieges Constantinople (see 10.7) or has access (see 10.3) from the major power controlling Constantinople.
6.2.1.4 ICE LINE RESTRICTIONS: A fleet may not exit or enter a sea area north of the ice line during any winter month (see 9.1). If already in a sea area north of the ice line, it must remain these until winter ends and no naval combats can be fought.

6.2.2 NAVAL MOVEMENT PROCEDURE: A major power's fleets occupying the same port, blockade box or sea area must always be combined into one "stack." Major powers that are in the same port, blockade box or sea area that have announced combined movement are treated as one stack.
6.2.2.1: A player may pick up any or all of the fleets in a stack and begin moving them as one stack.
6.2.2.2: Fleets may be added to this stack by moving it to the port, blockade box or sea area containing the fleet(s) desired to be added.
6.2.2.3: Fleets may be dropped off in any port, blockade box or sea area through which the stack passes.
6.2.2.4: Once a stack ends its movement, it may not be moved again this player sequence (EXCEPTIONS: for interceptions, for retreat or pursuit following naval combat or to leave an enemy-controlled port --see 6.2.6).
6.2.2.5: So long as no fleet moves twice nor exceeds its movement allowance, the player may continue to repeat this process until all desired fleets have been moved.

6.2.3 NAVAL INTERCEPTIONS: Fleets may move through areas containing other fleets (even enemy fleets) with no restriction on movement, except that they may be interrupted by interception. In that case an interception combat is fought immediately and if, and only if, the phasing major power's fleets win the interception naval combat may they continue movement (without any movement penalty). Interceptions may not be attempted on stacks that are retreating or pursuing (see 6.3.5).

6.2.3.1 INTERCEPTION PROCEDURE: When a phasing stack enters a sea area occupied by or adjacent to one or more enemy stacks, those enemy stacks may attempt to intercept the moving stack. An "enemy stack" is any stack containing fleets at war with any fleet or fleets in the phasing stack and/or at war with any corps that the phasing stack may be transporting.
6.2.3.1.1 Sequence of Interception Attempts: If more than one eligible major power wishes to attempt an interception, they must make their attempts in the major power sequence decided for movement in 6.1. Once one major power succeeds, no other major power may attempt an interception of that same phasing stack in that same area. Stacks that made or attempted earlier interceptions may be used again for later interceptions of different phasing stacks in the same area or of the same phasing stack in a different area. Major powers who have declared combined movement count as one major power for the purposes of interception, making their interception attempts in the sequence position of the major power going later in the sequence.
6.2.3.1.2 Who May Intercept: Only properly placed fleets in the appropriate circumstances may attempt to intercept.
6.2.3.1.2.1: A fleet entering a port (which must always be done through a blockade box-see 6.2.1.2) may not be intercepted unless the phasing player announces that he wishes to be intercepted. This is an exception to the rule of automatic interception in a blockade box (see 6.2.3.1.2.3).
6.2.3.1.2.2: A fleet in a port may only intercept enemy fleets entering the adjacent sea area(s) and then only if not blockaded.
6.2.3.1.2.3: A fleet entering a blockade box may only be intercepted by enemy fleets which currently occupy that blockade box and a fleet in a blockade box may only intercept enemy fleets which enter that blockade box (and the interception is automatic if attempted).
6.2.3.1.2.4: A fleet adjacent to the Dardanelles sea area would not be able to intercept fleets entering that area unless it was permitted under the restrictions of 6.2.1.3.
6.2.3.1.2.5: If a major power attempting an interception has several different stacks available for an interception, one stack only may be selected and announced for that interception attempt. If that stack fails to intercept, no other stack of the major power may attempt that same interception.

6.2.3.2 RESOLUTION OF NAVAL INTERCEPTIONS:
6.2.3.2.1 Blockade Box Interceptions:
When a phasing stack enters a blockade box and is automatically intercepted by an enemy fleet(s) there, it must win the immediate interception combat before it can continue moving.
6.2.3.2.1.1: If more than one enemy major power's fleets occupy that blockade box, the entering fleet(s) is intercepted by the major power higher in the sequence specified in 6.1.
6.2.3.2.1.2: If all enemy fleets choose not to intercept, the phasing fleet(s) may continue moving (the same as if the combat had been won).
6.2.3.2.1.3: Since a phasing stack must enter a port to add fleets in that port to the stack and fleets entering a port may avoid blockade box interception (see 6.2.3.1.2.1), a phasing player wishing to add a fleet or fleets in a port to a stack has a choice of how to handle a blockade box interception situation. The phasing player may announce a wish to be intercepted in the blockade box and fight an interception combat before entering the port to add the fleets there or may avoid interception in the blockade box and then (if movement isn't concluded in the port) move the combined stack from the port to the blockade box for an automatic (if interception is desired by the enemy) naval combat then.
6.2.3.2.2 Sea Area Interceptions: Except for interceptions in a blockade box, a die must be rolled for each stack attempting to intercept.
6.2.3.2.2.1: If attempting to intercept a phasing stack in an adjacent sea area, a "0" or "1" must be rolled on one die.
6.2.3.2.2.2: Attempting to intercept a phasing stack in the same area requires a "0", "1", "2", or "3".
6.2.3.2.3 Nelson Interception Modifier: If the NELSON leader is with the intercepting stack, one is subtracted from the die roll.
6.2.3.2.4 Intercepting Fleet Movement: If successful, the intercepting stack must be moved to the area containing the phasing stack that was intercepted, if not already there.

6.2.3.3 RESULT OF INTERCEPTIONS: If the interception is successful, a naval combat is fought immediately, (i.e., during the Naval Movement Step) using the naval combat rules (see 6.3). No evasion by the phasing major power is possible from an interception.

6.2.3.4 OUTCOME OF INTERCEPTION COMBAT:
6.2.3.4.1 Intercepting Side Victory:
If the intercepting major power's stack wins the naval combat, the phasing major power must retreat its stack in accordance with the naval combat rules (see 6.3.5), with that stack of fleets then ceasing movement after the retreat move. In this case, the intercepting fleets may continue to remain in the area for (possibly) intercepting other phasing stacks or some or all of the victorious fleets may pursue the defeated stack (see 6.3.5).
6.2.3.4.2 Phasing Side Victory: If the phasing stack wins the naval combat, the intercepting stack must retreat in accordance with the naval combat rules (see 6.3.5), and may not attempt more interceptions during this major power's movement sequence. Some or all of the phasing stack may pursue the defeated stack and/or continue movement with whatever movement points the stack's fleets retain. Of course, other fleets can attempt to intercept the phasing fleets in every other sea area that is entered by repeating the interception procedure.

6.2.4 INITIATION OF NAVAL COMBAT: If a phasing stack end its movement in a sea area containing an enemy stack, it may initiate an attack against those enemy fleets in the Naval Combat Step (see 6.3). If a phasing stack ends movement in a port or blockade box occupied by any enemy fleet(s), an attack must be initiated on the enemy fleet(s). It a number of attacks are initiated in different areas, the attacker decides the order in which the naval combats are to be resolved.

6.2.5 NAVAL TRANSPORTATION OF ARMY CORPS AND LEADERS: Corps and any accompanying leaders may be transported in the Naval Phase at the rate of one corps per fleet. Fleets may transport the corps of other major powers only if the two major powers have declared combined movement during the Declaration of Combined Movement Step of the Turn's Political Phase. Guerillas, cossacks, freikorps, insurrection corps, leaders not accompanying corps, and garrison factors may not be moved by sea.

6.2.5.1 TRANSPORTATION MOVEMENT PROCEDURE: The corps and the fleet must both begin in the same port land area. (Errata:) The corps and the fleet must both begin in the same friendly controlled (it may be besieged) port. They move together until in the sea area or blockade box adjacent to the land area in which the corps is to land or until reaching a port. Fleets and the corps they transport may enter other ports only if controlled or with access.
6.2.5.2 FAILURE TO DISEMBARK: If a corps does not disembark during the Land Phase it is destroyed. If all corps are destroyed in this manner, any leaders with the corps are retired from the map (see 5.3).
6.2.5.3 ELIMINATION OF TRANSPORTING FLEETS: If fleet counters are eliminated, corps they were transporting in excess of the number of fleets are lost. The corps so lost may not transfer factors before being eliminated. If all corps are destroyed in this manner, any leaders with the corps are captured.

6.2.6 ENEMY CONTROL OF A FLEET'S PORT: If a port in which a fleet is located becomes enemy-controlled, the fleet must be moved immediately (this will not happen during a Naval Phase, but during other phases and steps, including during a Declarations of War Step) into an adjacent sea area or the port's blockade box. Harbour defences are never used against fleets leaving a port.
6.2.6.1: If the port is blockaded by an enemy fleet at the time, the fleet in the port is scuttled instead and all its fleets and ships are lost. Alternately, if desired, the blockaded fleet(s) may choose to fight the blockading fleet(s), with the wind gauge automatically going to the blockading fleet(s). The blockaded fleet(s) remains in the blockade box if it wins the combat. The blockaded fleet(s) must be scuttled if it loses the naval combat.
6.2.6.2: If NELSON is with a scuttled fleet in this situation he is captured by the major power controlling the port.
6.2.6.3: Unlike rule 5.1.4.2, minor country and UMP major power fleets can be scuttled under these conditions.
6.2.6.4: Each fleet scuttled causes the loss of "-1" political point (record on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card).
6.2.6.5: A scuttled fleet counter must be repurchased during an Economic Phase (see 8.5.4) to be brought back into the game.

6.2.7 BLOCKADE OF PORTS: A stack may only enter a blockade box if it is at war with the major power controlling the port or if the box or port contains an enemy fleet or enemy corps with neutral fleets that have announced combined movement (which makes transporting the corps possible --see 6.2.5).
6.2.7.1: If a major power begins its naval sequence with a stack occupying a blockade box and it is not at war with the major power controlling the port, not at war with any fleet(s) occupying that port and/or not at war with any corps in the port area that can be transported, then the stack must leave that blockade box during its sequence of the Naval Phase.
6.2.7.2: If a blockade box is occupied, a stack may enter or leave the port without interception if not at war with any of the major powers with fleets in the blockade box. However, a fleet not at war with any major power's fleet in the blockade box may be intercepted if transporting a corps of a major power that is at war with the blockading stack (or portion of the stack --see 6.3.1.2).
6.2.7.3: Fleets of a major power that are at war with blockading fleets may enter or leave that port but may be intercepted by the blockading enemy major power's stack (see 6.2.3.2.1). Stacks entering a blockade box that win any interception combats, may then proceed into the port or out to sea (see 6.2.3).

6.3 THE NAVAL COMBAT STEP: These same rules apply to naval combats caused by interception (see 6.2.3) or by initiation (see 6.2.4).
6.3.1 WHO MAY FIGHT: If enemy fleets of more than one major power occupy a sea area, blockade box or port, only one major powers's stack can be attacked (for this purpose, all major powers who have declared combined movement and are at war with the attacker are considered to be one major power). Other major powers in the sea area, blockade box or port can be ignored (even with combined movement declared, if not at war with the attacker).
6.3.1.1 NAVAL ATTACKER/DEFENDER DETERMINATION: If there is more than one enemy major power present, the "attacker" decides which will be the "defender. " The attacker is the phasing side if 6.2.4 applies or the non-phasing intercepting side if the combat is caused by an interception (see 6.2.3). The defender (at the attacker's option) comprises any one
defender's stack that is present.
6.3.1.2 WHO IS AN ENEMY: A stack may only attack another stack if at war with the major power owning that stack, if at war with a major power owning corps being (or that could be) transported by fleets of that stack, or if at war with one or more of the fleets involved in combined movement. In the latter two cases, the attacker's stack need not be at war with the major power owning the transporting fleets, and, if not, the attacker has the option to either:
6.3.1.2.1: Attack without a declaration of war (no political point loss for a declaration of war) although political points are still normally gained or lost for winning or losing the battle.
6.3.1.2.2: Or, immediately declare war (even if operating under an enforced peace period, which can be ignored in this case (Errata:) although the other restrictions in 4.2.2 still apply) and lose the requisite political points (see 4.2.1.1) for each separate declaration of war. No allies may be called with these declarations of war.

6.3.1.3 ENEMY IN A PORT: A stack may attack an enemy stack or a neutral stack that could carry enemy corps (they are in the same land area and have announced combined movement) in a port city controlled by a neutral major power.
6.3.1.3.1: If the attacking stack is given access by the port's controlling major power, the harbour defences are not used.
6.3.1.3.2: If denied access, the phasing stack can still attack, but the port's controlling player may use the harbour defences. No declaration of war is required in this case, but 6.3.1.2.1 or 6.3.1.2.2 can be applied.
6.3.1.3.3 EXCEPTION: Even if the attacker has unconditional access (see peace term C.5 and 10.3) and/or an earlier voluntary access agreement with the neutral major power that garrisons the port to enter the port, if the fleet(s) being attacked belong to the neutral major power holding the port, the harbour defences are used (see 10.3.2 to determine who holds a city).

6.3.2 POSSIBLE EVASIONS: The major power upon which an attack is declared may attempt to evade unless the attack is caused by an interception or is in a port or blockade box. If the evasion is unsuccessful a combat will be fought. If the evasion is successful, the phasing player may not then attempt to attack any other stack remaining in the area.
6.3.2.1: Every time the phasing major power intends to attack a stack, the non-phasing stack may attempt naval evasion, This is done by the non-phasing stack's controlling player rolling a die. If a "1" or "2" is rolled, the non-phasing stack evades combat and is retreated according to the naval retreat after combat rules (see 6.3.5.1 - treat the evading side as if it were the loser of a combat and the attacking side as if it were the winner).
6.3.2.2: There are no political points for a successful evasion.

6.3.3 NAVAL COMBAT PROCEDURE:
6.3.3.1 DETERMING THE WIND GAUGE:
If combat is to take place, the "wind gauge" must be determined. A stack attacking in a port combat, and blockading fleets combatting fleets exiting that blockade box's port automatically have the wind gauge. In all other cases each side rolles one die, adding one to the result if that side contains a British fleet and adding a further one if NELSON is present. Notwithstanding these modifiers, a "6" is the maximum modiefied result. If the net rolls are equal, there is no wind gauge and combat is resolved simultaneously. In any other case, the higher die roll gains the wind gauge and conducts its attack first, removing losses inflicted on the opponent before the opponent replies.
6.3.3.2 NAVAL COMBAT RESOLUTION: Each side rolls one die , adding one if a British fleet is present on that side and subtracting one if a Prussian and/or Austrian fleet is present on that side (these modifiers may cancel each other if both are present in the same stack). The roll is compared to the NAVAL COMBAT TABLE on the Game Card and the result is the percentage (see the CASUALTY PERCENTAGE TABLE on the Game Card) of that side's number of ships the other side must remove as losses.
6.3.3.3 NAVAL COMBAT IN A PORT: If combat occurs in a port, the "harbor defences" (see map for harbor defences values printed in each port's blockade box) attack the phasing major power's fleet(s) first, using the NAVAL COMBAT TABLE on the Game Card with an unmodified die roll. Treat the harbor defence value number the same as if there where that many ships for the combat. There must be a garrison in the port city that is at war with or denied acces to (see 6.3.1.3 for these situations) an entering stack in order to use the harbor defences. The phasing major power's surviving ships then attack the enemy fleet(s) in that port. Finally, any surviving defending ships make their combat die roll.
6.3.3.4 NAVAL COMBAT EXAMPLE: Great Britain an France are at war. It is Great Britain's Naval Phase. Great Britain moves NELSON and 3 Fleets with 60 ships total into a sea area containing 3 French fleets with 31 total ships. First, wind gauge is determined: Great Britain rolls a "2", which becomes a "4" after modifiers for NELSON and British fleets. France rolls a "5". France wins the wind gauge and fights first. France rolls a "5" on the Naval Combat Table. This means 20% of the number of French ships is inflicted as losses on the British. 20% of 31 is 6 ships (on the CASUALTY PERCENTAGE TABLE, crossgrid the 20% line with "20" factors and then with "11" factors and add together to get "6"). Great Britain rolls a "2", which becomes a "3" after adding the modifier for British fleets. This results in 8 Frech ship losses (60 British ships minus 6 ships lost = 54 ships or "20" plus "20" plus "14" factors on the "15%" line of the CASUALTY PERCENTAGE TABLE = "8") being suffered by the French.

6.3.4 NAVAL VICTORY AND POLITICAL POINTS:
6.3.4.1 DETERMINING VICTORY: A side that does not lose all of its ships and also loses less ships than the other side wins a naval combat and the other side loses it. If both sides have surviving ships and losses were equal, the side that attacked loses the naval combat and the other side wins it. If a side loses all of its ships but loses less ships than the other side a naval combat is a draw (this can happen in port combats).
6.3.4.2 POLITICAL POINT CHANGES: The victor(s) of a naval combat gains political points and the loser loses them (draws have no political point effects). One political point is gained or lost for each fleet of the defeated major power(s) used in that combat, up to a maximum of +/-3 political points.
6.3.4.2.1: If the victor was commanded by the NELSON leader, they get "+1" extra political point.
6.3.4.2.2: If the loser was commanded by the NELSON leader, they lose "-1" extra political point.

6.3.5 NAVAL RETREAT AND PURSUIT: The survivors of one side in a naval combat must retreat. Retreat moves are always made before pursuit moves and the retreat and pursuit moves of one naval combat must be made before the next naval combat is resolved.
6.3.5.1 SEA AREA RETREATS AND PURSUITS: The naval combat loser retreats all fleets that were in the combat to the one nearest unblockaded friendly (including an ally's port, with access permission and if the loser wishes to use it) port within seven movement points (losing player's choice if more than one possible port is equally close). Some, none or all of the victorious fleet(s) may pursue to follow the losing fleets and blockade that port.
6.3.5.1.1: If no eligible port is available, or at the loser's option, the loser retreats to any one adjacent sea area of the victor's choice (a sea area into which movement is not possible may not be selected) . Retreating or pursuing fleets may not be intercepted. In this case there is no pursuit and the victor remains in the area where the combat occurred.
6.3.5.1.2: A fleet may neither retreat nor pursue into or through a sea area north of the ice line during winter or into or through the Dardenelles sea area without the per-mission of the major power controlling Constantinople (if any).
6.3.5.2 PORT RETREATS: If the naval combat takes place in a port, the attacking fleets (win or lose) must always retreat to the port's blockade box, and the defending fleets remain in the port (no pursuit).
6.3.5.3 BLOCKADE BOX RETREATS AND PURSUITS: If the naval combat takes place in a blockade box the loser must retreat to that port, if and only if, the combat resulted from the movement of the loser's stack from that port, and in any other case must retreat in accordance with sea area retreat rules (see 6.3.5.1). Pursuit is the same as a sea area pursuit. EXCEPTION: Since movement between a blockade box and its port is free (see 6.2.1.2), the victor (even if the phasing side with all movement expended) in a blockade box naval combat may be, if the port is friendly or with access permission, moved into the port following the naval combat.
6.3.5.4 NAVAL RETREAT AND PURSUIT EXAMPLE: Continuing the example from 6.3.3.4; as the French Player lost (8 ships lost to 6) he must retreat to the nearest unblockaded friendly controlled port within seven movement points or be moved by the British to an adjacent sea area. Great Britain gains "4" political points for the win (including "+1" extra for NELSON), and France loses "3" political points because the loser had 3 fleets. France decides to retreat to a nearby home nation port and Great Britain decides to follow up and blockade that port.

6.3.6 CONSOLIDATION OF LOSSES: After ships lost in combat are removed, excess fleet counters (those without ships) are removed from the map. No political points are lost for removing these empty fleets. If during naval combat or as a result of transfer, a fleet is left without ships, it is removed from the map and must be repurchased during an Economic Phase (see 8.5.4) to be brought back into the game. If NELSON is with a stack in which all ships and fleets are eliminated by naval combat, NELSON becomes a prisoner of the other side in the naval combat.

5.0 The Reinforcement Phase

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7.0 The Land Phase