4.0 *The Political Phase

The actions of the Political Phase occur in the following order of steps an during this phase only. The exeption to this is declaration of war, which can also occur at other specified times (see 4.3, 4.6.4.2, 4.6.5, 6.3.1.2.2 and 7.3.8.3).

4.1 THE DIPLOMACY STEP: During this step, an agreed-upon period of time is set aside for discussion among the players. We recommend no more than 5 - 10 minutes to keep the game moving. Generally, players will wish to separate into pairs or small groups and move out of earshot of others for "secret" negotiations. This is the time to talk to other players about getting together for declarations of war, checking to see if allies will respond if called, preliminary discussions about peace terms, asking if others wish to ally, deciding on combinde movements and their announcement, expressing pleasure or displeasure, making promises and threats, etc.

4.2 THE DECLARATIONS OF WAR STEP: Next, each player secretly writes down every major power or neutral minor country upon which he has chosen to declare war (if any). Players not declaring war may wish to write "no declarations" just to keep everybody guessing. All declarations are  revealed simultaneously. In order for a major power and its controlled minor countries to attack another major power or neutral minor country or their forces, a declaration of war must have been made between them during this step (EXEPTIONS: see 4.3, 4.6.4.2, 4.6.5, 6.3.1.2.2 and 7.3.8.3). A major power that declares war is called an "aggressor", and a major power or neutral minor country upon which war is declared is called a "defender".

4.2.1 POLITICAL POINT LOSSES FOR WAR DECLARATIONS: Major powers lose political points for each of their declarations and these changes must be recorded (see POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card).
4.2.1.1: A major power loses three political points whenever it declares war on another major power. Additionally, if a major power declares war on an ally, there is an additional loss of two political points for breaking the alliance by the declaration of war.
4.2.1.2: A major power loses one political point for each district (see 10.4) in a neutral minor country when it declares war on that minor country, unless no major power can be found to run that minor country (see 4.6).

4.2.2 LIMITATIONS OF DECLARATIONS: A major power may declare war within the following limitations:
4.2.2.1: A major power may not declare war on another major power or neutral minor country if the declaring major power has corps, freikorps, cossacks, garrisons or guerillas within the second major power's territory or within that neutral minor country.
4.2.2.2: A major power already at war with another major power may not declare war on other major powers if enemy forces are already inside of its home nation. (Errata:) A major power already at war with another major power may not declare war on other major powers if unbesieged enemy infantry corps are already inside its home nation.
4.2.2.3: War may not be declared on a neutral minor country if it is physically impossible for the declaring major power to enter the minor country's territory during the Turn.
4.2.2.4: A major power may not declare war against another major power if festricted by an enforced peace (see 4.4.6.3). EXEPTIONS: See 6.3.1.2.2 and provisions of peace term B.6 (see VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card).

4.2.3 EXTEND OF DECLARATIONS: A declaration of war on a major power is also (at no further cost in political points) a declaration of war on all of its controlle minor countries. Controlled minor countries may not have war declared upon them separately.

4.3 THE CALL TO ALLIES STEP: Any major power who has in this Political Phase declared war on another major power or has had war declared upon it, may demand that an ally immediately declares war on the new enemy, if not already at war with that enemy. If there is more than one declaration of war during a Declaration of War Step, the order in which the defending and then the agressor player may "call to allies" is determined by competitive die rolls.

4.3.1 ALLY CALLING PROCEDURE: A player may call on some allies and not on others, at the calling player's discretion.
4.3.1.1: The defender calls on his allies first, and then an aggressor may call his allies only if the defender has attempted to do so. If there were multiple declarations of war, all defenders call on their allies followed by (if allowed) all aggressors.
4.3.1.2: If two major powers declare war on each other simultaneously, they are both considered aggressors and thus neither may call allies.
4.3.1.3: Should a called ally of a defender refuse a call, that refusing ally is considered to have broken the alliance an loses the requisite political points ("-2" - see the POLITICAL POINTS CHART). If any allies of an aggressor refuse his call to allies, both the ally and the aggressor are considered to have broken the alliance, with both losing the requisite political points ("-2") for breaking an alliance.
4.3.1.4: If any ally cannot declare war because of peace-time restrictions (an enforced peace - see 4.4.6.3), that ally may not be called upon. If an ally cannot declare war for other reasons (see 4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2), the ally can stil be called and, since the call cannot be answered, will be forced to break its alliance.

4.3.2 ANSWERING A CALL: Allies called upon may only declare war upon the original aggressor or defender - further declarations of war resulting from a call to allies do not permit a further call to allies.

4.4 THE PEACE STEP: Peace may be made only at this time. A lapse of war with a minor country may also occur during this step (see 4.6.6). Peace must be in one of the following forms:

4.4.1 INFORMAL PEACE: Two major powers may informally agree to a peace between themselves on whatever general terms they decide, none of which are enforceable, and no political points are involved. An informal peace may never involve removing forces, the immediate ceding of territory, corps on loan, royal marriage, removal of leaders or dissolving or re-establishing th Holy Roman Empire. In this case there is no 18 month enforced peace and no enforceable reparations, trade restrictions, etc. can be imposed but forces are repatriated (see 4.4.6.2).

4.4.2 SUING FOR PEACE: A major power wishing to "surrender" may "sue" for peace. Minor countries may not sue for peace, although peace can come through a "lapse" in a war (see 4.6.6).
4.4.2.1: A major power may not sue for peace to another major power that does not have forces within the suing home nation's borders unless, at the same time, it sues for peace to all major powers with wich it is at war.
4.4.2.2: When a major power sues for peace, the opponent must then offer a "formal peace", either a "conditional peace", which must be accepted, or an "unconditional peace", which may be accepted only if the suing player desires.
4.4.2.3: Political Points change as follows (also see the POLITICAL POINTS CHART):
4.4.2.3.1 Conditional Surrender: A major power accepting the conditional surrender of another major power gains "+3" political points. A major power that surrenders conditionally to any number of other major powers at the same time (bit does not surrender unconditionally to any other major power at the same time) loses "-5" political points.
4.4.2.3.2 Unconditional Surrender: A major power accepting the unconditional surrender of another major power gains "+5" political points. A major power that surrenders unconditionally to any number of other major powers at the same time (some simultaneous surrenders may be conditional, but at least one must be unconditional) loses "-8" political points.

4.4.3 CONDITIONAL PEACE: If the peace is conditional, the loser surrenders and chooses one "peace condition" (also called a "peace term") that will apply to him with that victor form list "A" of the VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card and the victor chooses up to two peace conditions from list "B" not conflicting with the list "A" choice. If surrendering conditionally to more than one major power simultaneously, the same or a different peace condition from list "A" may be selected for each victor.

4.4.4 UNCONDITIONAL PEACE: If the peace is unconditional, each victor chooses up to three conditions from lists "B" and/or "C" and the surrendering loser does not get a choice from list "A". Certain choices in list "B" preclude choices from "C" and vice-versa, as shown on the VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card.

4.4.5 SIMULTANEOUS PEACE WITH MULTIPLE ENEMIES: If a major power makes peace by "surrendering" to two or more enemies at once, it loses only one (the larger, if there is a difference) set of political points.
4.4.5.1: The victors choose their peace terms on an alternating basis until each has gained the maximum number of peace terms possible and/or desired or all peace terms available for that type of surrender have been taken.
4.4.5.2: Victors choose their alternating peace terms in the order they went to war with the surrendering power - if the victors went to war at the same time (a major power that went to war as a result of a call from an ally is considered to have gone to war after the caller), resolve the order of choice by competitive die rolls.
4.4.5.3: Regardless of the number of victors, no peace term may be chosen more than once (EXEPTION: peace term C.6, which all victors must choose as one of their selections to go into effect).For example, if one victor chose peace peace term B.4 (which also precludes chioces B.1 and C.1), no other victor could choose B.1, B.4 or C.1.

4.4.6 EFFECTS OF PEACE: When two major powers make any type of peace, the following are always done:

4.4.6.1 PRISONER EXCHANGE: All surrendered factors and captured leaders are mutually exchanged. The exchanged factors are placed the same as reinforcements (see 5.2 and 5.3) during the next Reinforcement Phase. This is the only time prisoners are exchanged, although captured leaders may be returned at other times at the captor's option (see 10.6.3).

4.4.6.2 FORCE REPATRIATION: All corps in the other major power's territory are picked up and moved to the nearest area or areas in a now (after the control of ceded provinces has been marked) friendly-controlled province or minor country. Similarly, garrisons are picked up and moved to the nearest friendly area or areas where depots and/or cities are available to hold the factors. If two or more areas are equidistant, the owning player chooses the area, or may choose to place some forces in some of or each of the equidistant areas. All depots in the other major power's territory are just picked up. All fleets (unless given permission to stay) must leave during the next Naval Phase. EXEPTION: If the victor chooses peace term C.5, none of the victor's forces may be repatriated, but garrison factors in capital cities must (exept with permission to stay) be moved to the nearest possible area(s) that can hold them and that is not a capital city.

4.4.6.3 MANDATORY ENFORCED PEACE LENGTH: Except for an informal peace, neither major power may declare war on the other for 18 month (EXEPTIONS: see 6.3.1.2.2 and provisions of peace term B.6). Certain peace terms may extend this time period for the loser (see peace terms B.2 and C.2 on the VICTORY CONDITIONS CHART on the Game Card). Keep written records of when peaces are made and when major powers may again go to war.

4.4.6.4 STATUS OF CEDED MINOR FREE STATES: Any major power that acquires minor free states as a result of peace coditions B.7 or C.4 may accept them as they are with their forces or immediately change them to conquered minor countries and remove their forces as in 8.8.5.

4.4.7 SEPARATE PEACE AND ALLIES: If a major power surrenders to some but remains at war with other major powers, a major power with which war continues may demand that an ally or allies that was a victor in the formal peace immediately break their alliance(s) with the major power still at war (and lose "-2" political points for breaking the alliance). For example, Russia and Austria are allies and are both at war with Prussia. Prussia surrenders to Austria, but not to Russia. The Russian player may demand that Austria breaks its alliance with Russia. An ally may also demand that an ally that concludes an informal peace with a common enemy break their alliance.

4.4.8 A FINAL PEACE: If, as a result of a formal peace, a major power's province containing its home nation capital is ceded (which can only be done if no alternate province is available for ceding), that major power is permanentlyout of the game and all of its home nation forces are permanently eliminated from the map.

4.5 THE CREATING ALLIANCES STEP: New formal alliances are now announced and each of the two major powers that ally gain political points (see the POLITICAL POINTS CHART).
4.5.1: Major powers who are already alled may not re-ally with each other.
4.5.2: Major powers at war with one another may not ally.
4.5.3: Major powers that broke an earlier alliance may not re-ally until at least twelve months after the date of breaking the earlier alliance (keep written records of when alliances are broken).

4.6 THE MINOR COUNTRY CONTROL STEP: A major power must, if possible, be chosen to run each neutral minor country upon which war has been declared. The major power chosen must not be at war with that neutral minor country and may only be an ally of a major power at war with it if there are no non-allies willing or eligible to run it. If there is no major power willing or eligible to run the minor country, no attacker loses political points for declaring war on it and its forces are not set up (see 10.2.1. for conquering neutral minor countries).

4.6.1 CONTROL CHANGE DUE TO INSTABILITY/FIASCO POLITICAL STATUS: If a controlling major power's political status marker is located in the Instability or Fiasco Zone on the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card during a Minor Country Control Step, its controlled minor countries may change control or revert to neutral status at the start of this step (see 10.5.2 for details).

4.6.2 SELECTING CONTROLLING MAJOR POWERS: The major power who will run the minor country is that with the highest modified die roll, with any ties being decided by additional competitive unmodified die rolls. Each eligible major power that wishes to do so may roll a die, modifying the results by:
4.6.2.1 NATIONAL MODIFIERS: Find the national modifiers on the MINOR COUNTRIES CHART on the Game Card. Next to the name of each minor country, in the "National Modifiers" column, is the national modifier located under an abbreviation of each major power.
4.6.2.2 STATUS MODIFIER: See the POLITICAL STATUS DISPLAY on the Status Card. The "Status Modifier" is given to the right of each line or "zone". For example, if a major power's political status marker is in a box of the Dominant Zone, the modifier is "+1".
4.6.2.3 ALREADY AT WAR: If already at war with any of the major powers who have declared war on that neutral minor, a "+2" modifier applies.

4.6.3 ASSUMING CONTROL PROCEDURE:
4.6.3.1 MARKING CONTROL:
The major power selected to run the minor country gains a political point per district (see 10.4) in the minor country (record on the POLITICAL POINTS CHART on the Status Card), and, to show control places one of its control flags in the minor country. If the minor country has no forces, a conquered control flag is placed there. If the minor country has forces, that player places a free state control flag in that country and immediately stets them up. Once a player has been selected to run a minor country, that minor country may no longer incur separate declarations of war, until it returns to neutrality.
4.6.3.2 ORDER OF SETUP: If the forces of a number of different minor countries all need to be set up, they should be set up by the controlling major power in the order: France, Russia, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain.
4.6.3.3 INITIAL STRENGTH FACTORS:
The MINOR COUNTRIES CHART on th Game Card shows the starting minor country strengths in infantry ("If"), cavalry ("Cv") and ships ("Sh") for campaign games starting in the given years. This chart also shows the state of each minor country at the start of these campaign games - whether it is neutral, conquered, a free state, what major power controls it, etc.
4.6.3.4 LAND SETUP: Any, all or none of the minor country corps are set up in any area(s) of that minor country and its initial army factors distributed among those corps and/or as garrisons.
4.6.3.5 FLEET SETUP: If the minor country has a fleet, it is set up in any port in that minor country or in any sea adjacent to such a port, at its current strength.
4.6.3.6 POLITICAL POINTS FROM CONTROL: The major power controlling the minor free state gains and loses political points for any combats involving the minor country's forces.

4.6.4 MORE THAN ONE DECLARATION OF WAR UPON A MINOR COUNTRY: If more than one major power has declared war on the same minor country in the same Turn, any of the major powers may back down from the war declaration (but still lose the political points for the declaration) - if necessary, the involved players should secretly write down their intentions and reveal them simultaneously. If any two major powers who are both in a period of enforced peace (see 4.4.6.3) with each other and hence are not able to declare war upon one another, both declare war upon the same minor country then they must both back down, still paying the political point cost for the war declaration. If a major power is unable to declare war on any other major power that also declared war on the minor country for any other reasons (see 4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2 or for portions of a loser's enforced peace that exceed a winner's enforced peace), that major power must back down, still paying the political point cost for the war declaration. Major powers are not considered to have broken an alliance by these actions.
4.6.4.1 RETAINING CONTROL: If, after this, no major power remains at war (including a lapse of war - see 4.6.6) with the minor country it remains in the control of the major power who gained control through 4.6.2.
4.6.4.2 FORCED WAR DECLARATIONS: If two or more major powers do not back down and remain at war with the minor country, each must declare war on all the other major powers also attacking the minor country (if not already at war with them all). All those remaining major powers are eligible to attack the minor country and each other, but not the minor country's controlling major power (unless at war with it).
4.6.4.2.1: This costs the same in total as a declaration of war on one major power.
4.6.4.2.2: If there are any allies involved then the alliances are broken and the requisite points for each alliance broken are lost.(Errata:) If there are any allies and/or royal marriages involved, then the alliances and/or royal marriages are broken and the requisite points lost for each.
4.6.4.2.3: There are no calls to allies for these declarations of war.

4.6.5 MAJOR POWER SUPPORT OF CONTROLLED MINOR COUNTRIES: The minor country's controlling major power now has the option (if eligible and not restricted - see 4.2.2) of declaring war on none, any, or all of the aggressors.
4.6.5.1: This costs (in political points) the same in total, regardless of the number of declarations of war, as for a declaration of war on one major power ("-3" political points) plus the poltitical points lost for each broken alliance ("-2" political points). No allies can be called for these declarations of war.
4.6.5.2: If the controlling major power desires to help the minor country against the major power(s) attacking it, it has to declare war on or already be at war with the other major power(s) before its forces can take part in any combat with that major power(s). If it is not at war with at least one of the attacking major powers, the controlling major power may not garrison or control any cities of the minor country other than with that minor country's factors - the minor country must be run using only the minor country's own forces, although the controlling major power may pay for depots and/or supply costs for the minor country.
4.6.5.3: The controlling major power's corps are ignored in any combat involving that minor country's forces unless against a force which consists of factors of one or more countries with which it is at war (see 6.3.1 and 7.3.8).

4.6.6 LAPSE OF WAR WITH MINOR COUNTRIES: If, during any Peace Step prior to the conquest of a minor country, any invading major power has no corps within that minor country, then that major power is considered to be no longer at war with the minor country and must be at war with the major power controlling it before he can attack it again. Any garrisons, cossacks and/or freikorps are repatriated as per 4.4.6.2. NOTE: For multi-district minor countries (see 10.4), this applies if a secondary district has been conquered and there are no invading major power corps within the rest of that minor country.

4.7 THE BREAKING ALLIANCES STEP: A major power may break any standing alliances, even if made this Turn, paying the political point cost of "-2" for breaking an alliance. This is not a declaration of war.

4.8 THE FREE STATE DECLARATION STEP: Major powers can declare that any of their conquered minor countries that can have corps are now minor free states. Replace the conquered control flag with a free state control flaf in that country. Its fleet if any, is set up at its current strength and its corps, fleets, land, and naval factors may be purchased beginning in the next Economic Phase (see 8.2 and 8.5). Once a major power has declared a minor country to be a free state, it may not be later "undeclared" (i.e., switched back to being a conquered minor country by that major power).

4.9 THE DACLARATION OF COMBINED MOVEMENT: Allies may declare that their Naval and Land Phases will be combined for the remainder of the Turn, with movement of all their forces being conducted in the order of the ally moving last in each phase. This enables allies to move and attack together (see 6.1.2 and 7.1.2). (Errata:) If desired, write down combined
movement declarations and reveal them simultaneously.

3.0 Sequence of Play

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5.0 The Reinforcement Phase